Episode 14: Misjudgements in Load Securement
When transporting goods, many are involved to achieve a common result. The common result is the safe movement of goods from the producer to the consumer.
In between, there are several transport phases in which the goods are subject to the so-called TUL-loads which stands Transport-Transhipment-Storage.
In each phase, the goods/cargo must be secured in such a way that the TUL loads do not damage the products, render them unusable or even cause them to be lost. All phases involve people who approach their tasks with more or less expertise.
I would like to consider this issue from the following points of view:
- Organizational Misjudgments
- Physical Misjudgements
About the author:
In a series of specialist articles from the field, on topics relating to containers and trucks, you will receive first-hand professional knowledge.
How to secure cargo correctly and what are the basics of cargo securing?
They are developed and presented by Sigurd Ehringer, owner of SE-LogCon:
- VDI certified instructor for load securing
- Reference book author
- 8 years Project Manager
- 12 years with the Bundeswehr (company commander)
- 20 years of sales experience
- since 1996 consultant/trainer in logistics
- 44 years instructor/trainer in various fields
Episode 14: Misjudgements in Load Securement
They are often based on the fact that there is a significant information deficit between two parties.
This could be, for example, in the form that a consignor books a pallet space for his loading unit with the general cargo forwarder. The general cargo forwarder tacitly assumes that it is a Euro pallet.
When loading, it then turns out that the load carrier is actually a europallet, but the load protrudes considerably beyond the edges of the pallet. This immediately raises the question of how the load can be secured.
A company builds equipment and orders a truck from the freight forwarder. When the plant is loaded, it is discovered that the lashing points on the loading area are not in the places where they are needed.
The shipper assumed that the truck has a perforated strip. In doing so, he overlooked the fact that the perforated rail is not a piece of equipment prescribed in EN-12640. It only regulates the strength and distribution of the lashing points in the loading area.
This semi-trailer from England has only three lashing points on each side of the loading area. Loading was refused.
This picture of the same trailer shows that loaders hook the straps to the frame in a pinch.
However, the bending is an indication that the frame is not designed for such loads and will give way.
It is necessary that both the vehicle and the required securing means are precisely defined.
- Semi-trailer with a free payload of 25,000kg for a payload of 24,500kg.
- Equipped with a perforated strip for variable attachment of the straps.
- One tensioning strap with long-lever tension ratchet, STF=500daN and LC=2,000daN per pair of lashing points, but at least 13 straps + 2 as reserve.
- One pair of edge protectors per belt.
- A locking beam system with two locking beams and a BC of 4,000daN each for securing to the rear.
- 3 strips of anti-slip mats per pallet location, quality according to VDI-2700 sheet 14.
Cargo data: Number of load carriers, their weight and dimensions, and an indication of whether the center of gravity(ies) is/are centered or off-center. A truck with preload is not loaded.
Of course, it must be ensured that the equipment and the general condition of the train are checked before loading the truck. It is of little use to load the truck and run the risk that the control authorities will shut it down because of obvious technical defects and the customer will not receive his goods or will receive them too late.
A common misjudgment is the behavior of the load in the event of emergency braking or evasive action and its direction of movement.
It is often the case that heavy loads are merely lashed down on trucks. This is presumably based on the assumption that a belt with the specification LC=2,000daN can also secure a load of 2,000kg.
This assumption is so simply wrong. The belt could achieve its maximum effect if the load were to fly away, but not if the driver has to brake.
This picture is an example of that. The heavy pallets of paving stones are each lashed down with only one strap.
Passing the belt or chain through the towing eyelet only provides a forward securing force.
In the event of an evasive movement, the chain/belt would slip and the wheel loader would slide off the low-loader.
A lot of effort was put into securing this load with chains and belts. It would still move in the event of emergency braking. Neither the chains nor the belts could prevent this.
The friction is too low (metal on metal) and the angles too shallow, therefore the perpendicularly acting part of the preload force is too low.
It is necessary for users and those involved to become more intensively involved with their area of responsibility and to penetrate the issues. In the organizational area, the laws, regulations and rules must be translated into concrete instructions for action for those carrying out the work.
In practical application, the possible direction of movement of a load in the event of emergency braking or evasive action must be determined. As a rule, the direction is always horizontal.
Only then can it be determined whether a friction-locked securing method (tie-down lashing) would be sufficient or whether it would not be more appropriate and effective to use a positive-locking method (tight fit to superstructures, direct lashing, head lashing, etc.).
Your Sigurd Ehringer.
You see trucks on the highway all the time. Through my work at Rothschenk, however, I first really became aware of the importance of load securing on such a large scale.
On our own account:
Rothschenk. That's us.
Rothschenk is a manufacturer of load securing equipment for overseas containers. In the tranquil town of Aub in central Franconia, we develop, test and sell our own load securing equipment such as dunnage bags/padding, Lashing restraint systems, Edge Protectors, Anti-slip Mats, Lashing Straps and drum securement. You can get a small insight into our product world in our Online Shop: [R] SHOP24.
We develop for our customers, to whom also large corporations e.g. from the CHEMICALS-, BEVERAGES- and Automotive industry belong, individual load securing. Therefore we are used to come up with new products and solutions in our own research and test department.
We stand for quality "Made in Germany„. Not only in development, but also in production. Because we are the only manufacturer for load securing with our own production site in Germany. Real "Made in Germany" even.
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