Application

The most common types of lashings are:
 
  • Diagonal lashing
    • In this case, the belts are attached to all four corners of the load and lashed diagonally, usually crosswise. The lashing angles play a decisive role here
  • Tie-down lashing
    • In this process, the lashing strap is placed over the goods and these are pressed to the floor by tensioning. This requires a relatively high number of lashing means, which can be reduced by means of anti-friction mats (friction value increase).
  • Head lashing with palette
    • In this case, a pallet is placed in front of the goods in the direction of travel, i.e. at the front, and the webbing is passed through, thus creating an "artificial end wall". The center of gravity of the goods must always be below the lashing equipment.
  • Head lashing with retaining strap
    • With this variant, instead of a pallet, a retaining strap is guided over the goods, which fixes the height of the front-side strap. A lashing calculator assists with the correct lashing angles.
  • Bay lashing/
    • It serves as a kind of "dropside substitute" and is designed as a side loop lashing. In this case, the bay lashing is almost ineffective in the direction of travel, so that a tight fit must be used here, e.g. on the end wall of the body.
In our technical paper: Episode 25: What types of lashing are there for load securing? you will find the different types of lashing each as a picture with detailed explanation.
 
Also, an upgrade in this article: The label on the lashing strap - recognizing fake - what does it really have to say?
Positive locking on trucks is usually achieved by placing the goods against the end wall. Therefore, the decisive factor is how much force the body can absorb, e.g. in the event of emergency braking. In the European standard: "Load securing on road vehicles - Bodies on commercial vehicles - Minimum requirements; German version EN 12642:2016" - or in short: EN-12642 Code XL, both the bodies "L" and the bodies "Code XL" are defined.

Furthermore, the coefficient of sliding friction can be positively changed by the use of anti-slip mats. However, simple measures such as sweeping the loading area also have an influence on the coefficient of friction between the pallet and the truck loading area.

Form-fitting of the load units, i.e. placing the load as far as possible without gaps or by filling the stowage gaps, e.g. with stowage sacks, is also very important. Using case studies, we explain the various aspects and possibilities in practice in our blog article.
There are two classic misconceptions:
 
- organizational
- physical
 
Organizational factors can arise from a lack of information, poor coordination of the people involved in loading, or poorly communicated load securing needs (e.g., wrong truck body ordered). The consequence is usually that loading cannot take place or is carried out with disproportionate compromises.
 
Physical misjudgements often result from incorrectly estimated weights in relation to the actual securing force of the load securing equipment. The lashing angles are also often incorrectly selected or the load is only secured in one direction.
 
Case studies and the exact errors can be found in our technical article: "Episode 14: Misjudgments in Load Securing".
The coefficient of friction in load securing for trucks plays a major role in choosing the right load securing equipment. After all, it determines the load weight to be secured. What role does a clean loading area play in this? How do I get my shippers to comply with the basic rules?

Force-fit load securing means that the goods and the securing equipment have as much contact surface as possible. An example would be a load unit made of cardboard on a Euro pallet, which is secured with dunnage bags.

Bay lashing/

The Bay lashing/ is a method that is also known as Loop Lashing is known and, like much of cargo securing, comes from seafaring. A sling is placed around the load and the ends of the sling are attached to the means of transport.

As with head lashing, the LC of the straps and lashing eyes is critical.

Headlashing

The Headlashing is an excellent method of securing a load to the rear. The pallets standing on edge form a surface for better force transmission and hold the belts in position. In the example on the right, a securing force of 8,000daN can be roughly assumed without taking into account the exact angles and friction.

However, the lashing angles must always be less than 45Âș in order to obtain the highest possible positive portion of the securing force.

Read the entire technical article with pictures and practical examples in our store security blog.

  • Positive Load Securement means that the load is stowed away without any gaps and rests directly on the vehicle body. The prerequisite for this, however, is a sufficiently stable vehicle body
  • Non-positive Load Securement means that the load is pressed onto the loading area by lashing it down. The frictional force increases as a result of the pressure. This in turn secures against slipping. Ultimately, it is not the lashing devices that secure the load directly, but rather they increase and maintain the friction force. The frictional force secures the load.
Through the use of Anti-slip Mats to the ground, as well as the use of Stowage bags/stowage cushions friction force can be increased. Anti-slip mats increase the friction between the pallet and the loading area. Stowage sacks fill existing stowage gaps with a positive fit. In the latter case, the load is pressed against the wall on the right and left, thereby increasing the friction between the wall and the goods.
Unsecured cargo always represents a danger for all road users. Therefore, the goods must be appropriately marked with Load securing equipment must be secured to prevent it from being thrown out to the side and/or damaged and/or posing a risk to passers-by.
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